Anaya, M., Galisteo-López, J.F., Calvo, M.E., Espinós, J.P., Míguez, H.

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 9 (2019) 3891-3896

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b01830

Herein we present a combined study of the evolution of both the photoluminescence (PL) and the surface chemical structure of organic metal halide perovskites as the environmental oxygen pressure rises from ultrahigh vacuum up to a few thousandths of an atmosphere. Analyzing the changes occurring at the semiconductor surface upon photoexcitation under a controlled oxygen atmosphere in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chamber, we can rationalize the rich variety of photophysical phenomena observed and provide a plausible explanation for light-induced ion migration, one of the most conspicuous and debated concomitant effects detected during photoexcitation. We find direct evidence of the formation of a superficial layer of negatively charged oxygen species capable of repelling the halide anions away from the surface and toward the bulk. The reported PL transient dynamics, the partial recovery of the initial state when photoexcitation stops, and the eventual degradation after intense exposure times can thus be rationalized. 

Origin of Light-Induced Photophysical Effects in Organic Metal Halide Perovskites in the Presence of Oxygen